Tag-Archive for » Nosema ceranae «

Thursday, October 07th, 2010 | Author:

New technology finds pathogens that may reconcile contradictory claims on Colony Collapse Disorder


James Fischer (james.fischer@gmail.com) for
“The American Bee Journal”  (http://www.americanbeejournal.com)
(Embargoed by the journal PLoS ONE until 10/06/2010 5pm EDT)

A multi-institutional team of researchers sifted through the ever-growing zoo of new invasive, exotic pathogens of bees, and consistently found the same two disease organisms in beehives suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in samples collected from 2006 to 2009.

They discovered a new virus never seen before in North America, and found a well-known invasive variant of the intestinal bee disease Nosema. The overlooked virus may explain why prior studies presented mutually contradictory findings. This new evidence could create a basis for consensus among research teams who to date, lacked common ground in their conclusions.

Their paper appeared only minutes ago in the journal PLoS ONE (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013181)

The paper reports on a multi-year study of Colony Collapse Disorder. Researchers used new technology and techniques to detect and unambiguously identify every pathogen in collapsing bee hives, rather than the smaller subset of possible pathogens detectable via other means.

An Invertebrate Iridescent Virus (“IIV”) , newly-found in North America, in combination with Nosema ceranae, which arrived from overseas less recently, was found in “Virtually all of the bees from CCD colonies” sampled from widely dispersed USA hives from 2006 through 2009.

IIV was not found in bees from packages imported from Australia nor in bees from an isolated non-migratory commercial bee operation in Montana, both sites confirmed free of CCD-like symptoms.

Additionally, the researchers “observed the progression of CCD in a collapsing colony… taking bee samples… over a three month period, ending when only a queen and four workers remained.”

Further still, some bees were inoculated with Nosema ceranae, while other bees were inoculated with the “IIV-6” strain of the IIV virus. Their mortality was then compared to bees inoculated with both pathogens, and a control group given a placebo. The results “strongly suggest that the combination of N. ceranae and IIV is associated with increased bee mortality.”

Yet even further, the effort discovered two additional invasive exotic bee viruses never before detected in North America, but determined that they were not involved in CCD.  The viruses found are “Varroa Destructor-1 Virus” and “Kakugo Virus”, both native to Asia.

Dr. Jerry Bromenshenk of U Montana outlined the next steps, “We have a proposal pending to isolate, characterize, and then inoculate bees with the specific iridescent virus that occurs in USA bees. This is a critical step, since the virus does not appear to be any of the world’s known iridescent viruses. Once we have the actual virus, we can complete the inoculation trials that are needed to test whether we’ve truly found the cause of CCD.”

Proteomics – A Brief Summary
The technology used in this study seems ideal for addressing the ever-growing list of pathogens carried across oceans by the globalization of trade. It can detect disease pathogens that need not be identical to any known pathogen. This describes the needs of beekeepers clearly, given the number of invasives that came to plague honey bees in the USA since the early 1980s.

“Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics” (MSP) starts with about 60 bees tossed in a blender, and mixed until homogenous, then filtered. Cells are chemically burst, and proteins are isolated from the mix and “digested”, breaking them down to peptides.  The resulting peptides are run through a device called a “Liquid Chromatograph” to separate them by density, which allows their structure and sequence to be determined by another set of devices, “Tandem Mass Spectrometers”.

Each peptide sequence is then compared to the NIH National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI) database of peptide sequences.  The database used is a collection of the peptides unique to specific organisms. This means that each match of a peptide sequence is a unique match to a single organism. Any peptide used in more than one organism would not be in the database.

Dr. Charles Wick of the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center explained the level of certainty with which the virus was detected in colonies showing CCD symptoms: “IIV has 18,900 unique peptides… When we detect a few of these, say 50-100, we have enough evidence for an unambiguous identification.”

But how did they make what Dr. Wick called an “unambiguous identification” of a virus that was said by Dr. Bromenshenk to not be “any of the world’s known iridescent viruses”? How can anyone find what’s never even been detected or identified before?  The answer is that the unknown organism will match the closest organism in the database, which narrows things down to at least the “family” or “genus” level, if not “species”.  So, even without having sequenced the specific strain of IIV of interest, enough peptides matched the IIV strain in the database to confirm that what was found was a strain of IIV.

As an example of the wide net cast by this technique, Nosema was not well-represented in the NCBI database, so there was some ambiguity in the identification of the Nosema via proteomics alone, matching only the genus Nosema. The species and strain was confirmed as Nosema ceranae using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques.

The Claims In Spain Can Mainly Be Explained
Research led by Mariano Higes of the Bee Pathology Laboratory, Centro Apícola Regional in Marchamalo, Spain has repeatedly pointed to Nosema ceranae as the sole proximate cause of rapid colony collapse.  This seemed unlikely to researchers in the USA and elsewhere, as Nosema has not appeared to be as virulent outside of Spain.  But this new work provides an explanation that could support the Higes work with nothing more than the addition of the newly-detected IIV.

As in previous US studies, no one in Spain would have had reason to suspect that a DNA virus like IIV would be involved, as the bulk of bee viruses are RNA viruses. So they’ve yet to look for IIV in Spain, and they have not had the wider net of MSP to find what was not being sought. The good news is that Dr. Higes has historical samples frozen. Dr. Jerry Bromenshenk reports that the Higes team is willing to engage in a joint effort to screen the Spanish samples using MSP.

Does This Explain CCD In The USA?
The samples analyzed in this study showed a wide range of pathogens, including Nosema, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus (“IIV”), Black Queen Cell Virus, Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, Deformed Wing Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus, Varroa Destructor-1 Virus, and Kakugo Virus. None of the suspect pathogens named by other research efforts were missed, two new and novel pathogens were found, and the use of MSP implies that no pathogens were overlooked.  Even a new, unknown, and unnamed pathogen would have resulted in a partial peptide match to some other living thing.

So, while the counts or mix of pathogens might have been skewed by an insufficient number of samples, or collecting samples from an insufficient number of operations, it is difficult to imagine that there are additional pathogens yet to be found that could be implicated in CCD.

Insecurity About Biosecurity
Since the 1980s, “Globalization” has increasingly consisted of shipments of goods from Asian ports to Western shores. This research connects the dots by consistently finding specific bee pathogens native to Asia, unknown to USA beekeepers in the early 1980s, but that have since become far too familiar:

“We know that in the Asian honey bee, Apis ceranae, a combination of parasites and pathogens co-exist, including: (1) Nosema ceranae, (2) an iridescent virus, (3) parasitic and predacious mites, and (4) two other RNA-type viruses, Kashmir bee virus and a Sacbrood virus.  We have had both Kashmir bee virus and Nosema ceranae in North America going back a decade or more. We need to see how similar the CCD strain of iridescent virus is to the IIV-24 strain from Apis ceranae.  It is possible that US bees acquired IIV from the Apis ceranae along with Nosema ceranae and Kashmir bee virus.” 

While unsubstantiated “fringe” explanations for CCD abound, ranging from cell phones to pesticides to GMO crops, the common factor is that pathogens previously found only in Asia have spread to countries lacking effective biosecurity, such as the USA, but not to countries with more robust approaches to biosecurity, such as New Zealand.  The research team suggests “Standard quarantine practices such as testing of imported bees before they are added to colonies, and disinfection of equipment would likely help.”

Practical Implications For Beekeepers
The team has two suggestions of interest to beekeepers:

  1. “Most IIVs replicate at about 21 C (70 F) and do not replicate above 30-32 C (86 – 89 F). Higher temperatures may suppress the virus by halting replication, whereas cool weather and damp conditions may speed up replication of both IIV and Nosema. Many instances of CCD have occurred following extended periods of cool, damp weather.  Several beekeepers have reported to us that they have more problems with bees in areas with frequent fog or in hill areas where the weather is cooler. Placing bees in warm, sunny locations appears to help.”
  2. “Varroa may act as a vector for the dispersal of IIV among bee colonies. Varroa is known to increase damage caused by other viruses, and beekeepers who fail to control varroa levels are likely to sustain high colony losses.”

This may not sound like much, but it is a vast improvement over the usual vague platitudes we’ve been handed over and over about “maintaining strong colonies” and “minimizing stress”. It also ups the ante in the age-old debate among beekeepers over placing hives in sun versus placing hives in shade.

“Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline”
Jerry J. Bromenshenk, Colin B. Henderson, Charles H. Wick, Michael F. Stanford, Alan W. Zulich, Rabih E. Jabbour, Samir V. Deshpande, Patrick E. McCubbin, Robert A. Seccomb, Phillip M. Welch, Trevor Williams, David R. Firth, Evan Skowronski, Margaret M. Lehmann, Shan L. Bilimoria, Joanna Gress, Kevin W. Wanner, Robert A. Cramer Jr.

(2010) PLoS ONE 5(10): e13181. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013181

Jim Fischer keeps bees in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and the Bronx, and hopes to raise queens in Queens. He teaches the free 16-week full-semester urban beekeeping class in New York’s Central Park for the 846-member non-profit NYC Beekeeping Group (http://meetup.com/nyc-beekeeping)  and helps run the Gotham City Honey Co-Op (http://GothamCityBees.com).

Friday, June 05th, 2009 | Author:

Public release date: 4-Jun-2009

Contact: Dennis O’Brien
Public Library of Science

Bee-killing parasite genome sequenced

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists have sequenced the genome of a parasite that can kill honey bees. Nosema ceranae is one of many pathogens suspected of contributing to the current bee population decline, termed colony collapse disorder (CCD). Researchers describe the parasite’s genome in a study published June 5 in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.

In 2006, CCD began devastating commercial beekeeping operations, with some beekeepers reporting losses of up to 90 percent, according to the USDA. Researchers believe CCD may be the result of a combination of pathogens, parasites and stress factors, but the cause remains elusive. At stake are honey bees that play a valuable part in a $15 billion industry of crop farming in the United States.

The microsporidian Nosema is a fungus-related microbe that produces spores that bees consume when they forage. Infection spreads from their digestive tract to other tissues. Within weeks, colonies are either wiped out or lose much of their strength. Nosema apis was the leading cause of microsporidia infections among domestic bee colonies until recently when N. ceranae jumped from Asian honey bees to the European honey bees used commercially in the United States.

The ARS scientists used genetic tools and microscopic analysis at the ARS Bee Research Laboratory (BRL) in Beltsville, Maryland to examine N. ceranae. They collaborated with colleagues at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, Columbia University, New York, New York, and 454 Life Sciences, of Branford, Connecticut.

Sequencing the genome should help scientists trace the parasite’s migration patterns, determine how it became dominant, and help resolve the spread of infection by enabling the development of diagnostic tests and treatments.


ARS is a scientific research agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Supported by the USDA-ARS Administrator fund, www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome (JDE, JC, JP), North America Pollinator Protection Campaign, www.pollinator.org (JE, JC), USDA-NRI grant # 2002-0256, www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome (JE), Northeast Biodefense Center Grant # U54AI57158, www.nbc.columbia.edu (WIL), and Google.org Contract # 17-2008, www.google.org (WIL). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this paper is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the United States Department of Agriculture or the Agricultural Research Service of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

COMPETING INTERESTS: ME, SH, and BD are employed by 454 Life Sciences/Roche Applied Sciences.

PLEASE ADD THIS LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000464 (link will go live upon embargo lift)

CITATION: Cornman RS, Chen YP, Schatz MC, Street C, Zhao Y, et al. (2009) Genomic Analyses of the Microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an Emergent Pathogen of Honey Bees. PLoS Pathog 5(6): e1000466. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000466


This press release refers to an upcoming article in PLoS Pathogens. The release is provided by the article authors and/or their institutions. Any opinions expressed in these releases or articles are the personal views of the journal staff and/or article contributors, and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of PLoS. PLoS expressly disclaims any and all warranties and liability in connection with the information found in the releases and articles and your use of such information.

About PLoS Pathogens

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Tuesday, May 05th, 2009 | Author:


Please contact your Senators and ask them to sign on to a letter by Senator Boxer in support of vital research on agricultural pollinators. Please read below for additional information. The deadline for Senators to sign on to this letter is Wednesday, May 6.

Find the contact information for your Senator’s office

Thank you,
Scott Hoffman Black
Executive Director, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation

Providing funding for research into the causes and remedies of honey bee and native bee declines is a critical step in pollinator conservation.Infection of endothelial cells of the ventricle of the bee by N. cerana Please take a moment to call or write your Senator, let them know how important pollinators are, and ask them to 1) support this appropriation and 2) contact Senator Boxer’s office to sign on to this important letter.

Senator Boxer has written a letter requesting that the Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee allocate $20 million in Fiscal Year 2010 for pollinator research projects as authorized in the 2008 Farm Bill. These funds will increase the resilience and security of our farming systems by supporting vital research into Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in managed honeybees and to promote the health of honey bees and native pollinators through habitat conservation and best management practices.

As you may know, the 2008 Farm Bill includes language authorizing $100 million over five years to further our scientific understanding of the essential agricultural services pollinators provide our nation. The letter only seeks to fully fund critical provisions that were recently signed into law through legislative consensus.

Managed and native pollinators, such as honey bees, bumble bees, and other native bees, are needed for the production of over $18 billion (and possibly as much as $27 billion) per year in agricultural products in the U.S. These animals are required for 35 percent of the world’s crop production. Yet, total pollinator spending at USDA in the 2008 Fiscal Year accounted for merely 0.01 percent of the agency’s budget. Without pollinators, our current yields of alfalfa, almonds, apples, cherries, cranberries, blueberries, kiwifruit, strawberries, melons, squash, peppers, peaches, pears, plums, carrot, onion, and other seed crops, would not be possible.

Arising in 2006, the as yet unexplained phenomenon termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) diminished our nation’s already dwindling honey bee colonies, and highlighted our relative ignorance of the complex systems that support animal pollinated food production. It is vitally important to conduct research to better understand and solve this problem. Randy Oliver teaches beekeepers how to use microscope to find Nosema

Studies in other developed nations have well documented a diminished presence of honey bees and other vital pollinators in interdependent agricultural and ecological systems, but much information is lacking in the U.S. A major conclusion of a comprehensive study by the National Academy of Sciences in 2007 found that for most North American pollinator species, long-term population data are lacking and knowledge of their basic ecology is incomplete.

Funding for pollinator research will protect the health, future, safety, and sustainability of our nation’s most nutritional food crops. These funds will ensure that we base our sustainable future in agriculture on a more comprehensive understanding of the science that supports it.

Thank you for your help in this effort.

Read more about the 2008 Farm Bill Benefits to Crop Pollinators >>
Read more about the Xerces Society Agricultural Pollinator Conservation Program >>
Browse the Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation resources >>
Browse the Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation publications >>

The Xerces Society is an international, nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. For over three decades, the Society has been at the forefront of invertebrate conservation, harnessing the knowledge of scientists and the enthusiasm of citizens to implement conservation programs.

Tuesday, April 14th, 2009 | Author:


Honeybee colony collapse is a sanitary and ecological worldwide problem. The features of this syndrome are an unexplained disappearance of adult bees, a lack of brood attention, reduced colony strength, and heavy winter mortality without any previous evident pathological disturbances. To date there has not been a consensus about its origins. This report describes the clinical features of two professional bee-keepers affecting by this syndrome. Anamnesis, clinical examination and analyses support that the depopulation in both cases was due to the infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of Apis mellifera. No other significant pathogens or pesticides (neonicotinoids) were detected and the bees had not been foraging in corn or sunflower crops. The treatment with fumagillin avoided the loss of surviving weak colonies. This is the first case report of honeybee colony collapse due to N. ceranae in professional apiaries in field conditions reported worldwide.

E-mail mhiges@jccm.es; Tel. (+34) 949 25 00 26; Fax (+34) 949 25 01 76.

MY NOTES: Some beekeepers don’t recommend using it, affects cold weather bees. http://www.beesource.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-225700.html

And there’s discussions about how to apply it: http://www.beesource.com/forums/showthread.php?p=42097o None the less, it should be noted for the record.

Plus, Dr. Eric Mussen, UC Davis, chimes in about it http://www.projectapism.org/content/view/13/27/

And, is Nosema locustae “the only protozoan registered as a pesticide active ingredient” and what research has been done with honey bees and Nosema locustae? “Nosema locustae is a naturally-occurring microbe that infects and kills grasshoppers and Mormon crickets when these pests ingest bait that contains Nosema


Fumagillin in Environmental Microbiology Reports

Monday, March 09th, 2009 | Author:

This blog gets a fair amount of traffic, and this commentary on “colony collapse disorder” from a well-known pollination broker in California deserves attention. Also interesting is to read what he had to say about the idea of “beekeepers receiving government subsidies” almost 10 years ago in 1999. This topic is current again in the news.




Joe Traynor

The following is distilled from the reams of disparate dispatches from the CCD front. I have tried to condense this mass of information into a coherent whole. None of what follows is original — all has been expressed in one form or another by others.

When CCD first came on the stage in 2006-2007, a number of possible causes entered the stage at, or close to, the same time:

Drought in many areas
Difficulty in controlling varroa mites
Nosema ceranae (believed to be widespread since at least 2006)
Decreased bee pasture + increased corn acreage
Chemical buildup in comb
Neonicotinoid pesticides

A good argument can be made for any one of these as the main, or sole cause of CCD; a better argument for a combination of two or more. If only one of the above had occurred, it would have been much simpler to either designate or eliminate it as the cause of CCD.

Based on field reports, CCD can devastate a given apiary in a short period of time, sweeping from one end to the other, leaving previously populous colonies with only a handful of bees and a queen. Since rapid decline of an organism (consider, as many have, a honey bee colony to be an individual organism) is typical of a pathogen, current thinking is that a pathogen, either N. ceranae or a virus (or a combination of both) is the basic cause of CCD.

If a virus causes CCD, is it a new “super” virus, or one of the known bee viruses – Kashmir, DWV, APV et al. — or perhaps a mutation of a known virus to a more virulent form? We don’t know, but assuming that a virus causes CCD allows us to speculate on remedial measures.

Consider other CCD-like problems in humans and plants:

Main Vector
W.Nile virus

In each of the above instances, the Target can withstand the Vector in the absence of the Pathogen – mosquitoes are a minor concern to us if they don’t harbor a pathogen; without a READ THE REST…

Monday, March 17th, 2008 | Author:

I borrowed my friend’s vegcar to drive up to Santa Rosa, CA last weekend to learn about the CCD situation and meet more local beekeepers at the 2008 Bee Symposium. Quite a niceRandy Oliver at 2008 Bee Symposium, Sebastapol, CA turnout at the Summerfield Waldorf School, and I learned some great bits about dusting for mites with powdered sugar and using a microscope to look for Nosema ceranae from Randy Oliver (scientificbeekeeping dot com). The nice couple from Bee Kind store sponsored the event…. symposium@beekind.com

I have some recordings, and photos. The most interesting presentation that I wished I had recorded entirely was Dr. Ron Fessenden’s 20 minute powerpoint about honey and health, and the first Int’l Honey and Human Health symposium that happened in January 2008. It was fantastic! Click play below for some video from his presentation (shot with Canon Powershot SD1000).


I commented publicly on my observation that most of the attendees were more experienced, and/or older folks and thought that there may be a connection between the disheartening graph presented by Serge Labesque, and the fact that not many younger beekeepers were present (I counted 5 including myself). The response from Michael Thiele and others was “it’s always been that way” and “even in Germany and other Chart of beekeeper decline? parts of the world.” Obviously, according to the graph. My intention is to inspire more “kids” to understand pollination and beekeeping. It’s probably more heroic work, than, say… well, need I say? I encourage potential beekeeper mentors to recruit, get involved with leadership programs to integrate your work to find and plant the beeky seeds in our youth. Gold stars for all who get a kid away from “Play”stations and Second “Life” and turn them on to saving the planet for real!

Many San Francisco beekeepers were there, who I met later in the week at my first beekeeping club meeting. I’ve gained a mentor, and have found a place to put my hives when my bees come in April. We’ve formed a subcommittee within SFBA to examine and understand the apple moth arial spraying slated for the city of San Francisco August 1, 2008. Arial spraying for pests seems to me to be a rather Soviet-era way to handle a bug, militaristic and ineffective, and devastatingly ignorant. There is a campaign to stop this insanity.

As far as CCD goes, Mussen reported that it appears the same or worse than last year. The Vanishing of the Bees crew blogged of a well-known beek bringing them to see his dead-out hives, bee “graveyard” – millions of bees.

-DNR, March 16, 2008


DATE: Saturday, March 8, 2008
TIME: 9:00 am ? 6:00 pm

In this time of global ecological challenges, the honeybee is an indicator species reflecting the enormous changes taking place in our world. Bee populations are dying and pollination ecology is deeply affected. As beekeepers, we must become stewards of the earth and change paradigms. This one-day symposium offers information and speakers with new perspectives on honeybees and native pollinators, beekeeping practices, innovative approaches and ecological strategies for beekeepers.Randy Oliver on microscope


  • Randy Oliver, Grass Valley, Biologist and forward thinking commercial beekeeper
  • Dr. Eric Mussen, Entomologist, UC Davis, CA Beekeeper Association 2006 Beekeeper of the Year
  • Katharina Ullmann, Presenting for Claire Kremnen, Xerces Society, UC Berkeley
  • Serge Labesque, 2006 Western Apiculturist Society’s (WAS) Innovator of the year
  • Kathy Kellison, Executive Director of Partners For Sustainable Pollination (PFSP)
  • Michael Thiele, Holistic beekeeper; Demeter Beekeeping Standards
  • Ron Fessenden, M.D. Co-Chairman of The Committee on Honey and Human Health

Serge Labesque presentation


Two Innovative Movies on Beekeeping presented by the filmmakers

1) Pollen Nation, by Singeli Agnew and Joshua Fischer

2) The Vanishing of the Bees, by Maryam Henein

Doreen Schmid, presenting bee art The Melissa Garden ? A honey bee sanctuary in Healdsburg Rudolf Steiner College, Sonoma County Master Gardeners, 4-H Kids, Sonoma County Beekeeping Association and more.

Natural looking Hive (from Germany)